The Disease

Epidemiology of ileitis

Not much is known about the epidemiology of L. Intracellularis.
These are the reasons.


Ileitis or Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) is widespread in swine herds in different production systems (30-93% of farms are infected) and in all parts of the world(1,2,3,4,5). Serologic studies have shown that the prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis positive herds range from 60 to 90% in different countries(6).

The economic impact of ileitis on the swine industry was estimated to be very high, with values ranging from $20/sow/year in Australia(7), to $20 million/year in the United States(8).

Despite its importance, we still do not know much about the epidemiology of L. intracellularis, especially regarding the sources of infection, the resistance of the bacteria in the environment and the possible biological vectors that could spread the infection between farms.

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L. intracellularis is a gram-negative rod with a sigmoid or curved shape and with a single long flagellum.

History and Etiology of ileitis

L. Intracellularis has specific infectious mechanisms, and generally appears in the growing and finishing stages.

Pathogenesis of L. Intracellularis

The symptoms of ileitis in pigs are diverse, and include hemorrhagic or acute, chronic and subclinical.

Clinical signs and forms of ileitis

Diagnosing ileitis involves considering four important factors

Diagnosis of ileitis

Ileitis outbreaks must be treated immediately to reduce losses

Treatment of ileitis

The best preventative option for ileitis depends on the specific farm

Prevention of ileitis

The indications are that nearly all pig populations are susceptible to Lawsonia Intracellularis

Prevalence of ileitis

The ban on antimicrobial growth promoters in the EU affected the kinetics of the infection in different pig diseases

Potential impact of the reduction of antibiotics

Economic impact results mostly from productivity losses caused by the disease